Second industrial revolution .this phenomenon can be considering the second phase of the first Industrial Revolution experiencing in the United Kingdom. The countries where the industrial advances spread were France, Germany, Belgium, Japan, and the United States. Subsequently, industrialization would apply to Spain, Russia, Italy, and Western countries. Decades later, we are experiencing a third and even a fourth industrial revolution. The Second Industrial Revolution meant that technological and scientific advances came out of the UK, reaching other places. The expansion of these elements also had repercussions in these countries.
Experimentation brought new materials and new sources of energy.
The main characteristics of the Second Industrial Revolution were:
It was a stage of acceleration or intensification in the changes of the Industrial Revolution, which last from about 1850 or 1870 to the start of World War I in 1914. Local markets expand and began to internationalize base on the possibility of quickly moving goods from one place to another. This happening in the framework of the First Globalization.
New materials (for example, new alloys ), new chemicals, and new ways of obtaining energy were developing in a veritable era of inventiveness and industrial creation whose changes were only comparable to those of the so-called Scientific Revolution of the 17th century. Serial production was imposing as a working model and the large company as a successful economic model, which changed the oligarchic ownership model of the means of production in the First Industrial Revolution. Companies allowed the participation of third parties through the purchase of shares.
With the business boom, the massive application of scientific knowledge and research began to develop new industrial projects. As a result, scientific knowledge became very profitable for the bourgeoisie. There were notable systematic advances that impacting the quality of life and Western cultures, such as Darwin’s Theory of Evolution or the first steps toward modern medicine. Unemployment and social unrest grew, along with rivalry between the great European imperial powers. In addition, new industrial rivals such as the United States and Japan were added to this panorama.
To a certain extent, the Second Industrial Revolution was a logical next step after the first, machines’ success in the industrial sphere in England. The economic success that it brought with it would soon be replicating and desire by other rival powers. . But among the reasons that led to this stage of acceleration of changes are also the following:
Population growth in Europe result from technical improvements in agricultural production and the first advances in modern medicine.
Both the railway and the ship expand the possibilities of transportation.
The Second Industrial Revolution brought with it the following consequences in the short, medium, and long term:
Inventions and scientific advances of the Second Industrial Revolution
The first automobiles were creating at the end of the 19th century and became popular in the 20th.
The Second Industrial Revolution corresponds to the period between 1850-and 1870. And the beginning of the First World War in 1914. It was a time of significant economic and social changes due to rapid technological development. Technology has changing the world in many ways throughout history. Still, the Second Industrial Revolution period was unprecedented: it transform everyday life with new energy sources, transportation, production, and telecommunications.
Technological and scientific advances begin to take a more complex turn. Access was gained to different natural resources, unavailable.
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